A natural hazard is a natural phenomenon that might have a negative impact on the environment or humans. The natural hazard can be classified into two broad categories:
Geophysical hazards encompass geological and meteorological phenomena such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, wildfires, cyclonic storms, floods, droughts, avalanches and landslides. Biological hazards can refer to a various array of disease, infection, infestation and invasive species.
A natural disaster is a major adverse happening resulting from natural processes of the Earth; examples are floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, and other geological processes. A natural disaster can cause loss of life or property damage and leaves some economic damage in its wake, the severity of which depends on the affected population's resilience or ability to recover and also on the infrastructure available
Occupational health hazards or Ergonomic hazards are defined as a condition that results from exposure in a workplace to a physical, chemical or biological agent to the extent that the normal physiological mechanisms are affected and the health of the worker is impaired or may be defined as the type of work, body position and working conditions create a strain on your body. They are unbreakable to spot since you don't always immediately notice the strain on your body or the harm these hazards pose. Short-term exposure may ends in "sore muscles" the next day or in the days following exposure, but long-term exposure can deal in serious long-term injuries.
Ergonomic hazards include:
- Poor lighting
- Improperly adjusted workstations and chairs
- Frequent lifting
- Poor posture
- Awkward movements, especially if they are repetitive
- Repeating the same movements over and over
- Having to use too much force, especially if you have to do it frequently
Physical hazards are the most predictable and will be present in most workplaces at one time or another. They include vulnerable conditions that can cause injury, illness and death.
Examples of physical hazards include:
- Electrical hazards: frayed cords, missing ground pins, unacceptable wiring
- Unguarded machinery and moving machinery stuff: guards removed or moving parts that a worker can accidentally touch
- Constant loud noise
- High vulnerability to sunlight/ultraviolet rays, heat or cold
- Working from heights, exposure ladders, scaffolds, roofs, or any raised work area
- Working with mobile apparatus such as forklifts
- Spills on floors or tripping hazards, such as for occluding aisle or cords running across the floor
Biological hazards come from working with animals, people or infectious plant stuff. Work in daycare, hospitals, hotel laundry and room cleaning, laboratories, veterinary offices and nursing homes may uncover you to biological hazards.
The types of things you may be unveiled to include:
- Blood or other body fluids
- Bacteria and viruses
- Insect Bites
- Animal and bird droppings
Chemical hazards are present when a worker is exposed to any chemical preparation in the workplace in any form (solid, liquid or gas). Some are safer than others, but to some workers who are more sensitive to chemicals, even common solutions can cause illness, skin irritation or breathing problems.
- Liquids like cleaning products, paints, acids, solvents especially chemicals in an unlabelled container (warning sign!)
- Vapours and fumes, for instance, those that come from welding or exposure to solvents
- Gases like acetylene, propane, carbon monoxide and helium
- Flammable materials like gasoline, solvents and explosive chemicals
Ionizing radiation<span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: " lucida="" sans="" unicode",="" "lucida="" grande",="" sans",="" verdana,="" helvetica,="" arial,="" sans-serif;="" font-size:="" 13.5px;="" background-color:="" rgb(255,="" 255,="" 255);"="">'. Ionizing radiation is generated through nuclear reactions and can be very harmful to human health. Nuclear reactions can be naturally occurring, or artificial. There are three basic types of radiation. These include alpha, beta, and gamma radiation. Each radiation source is unique in the type of radiation it emits, and its risk to humans.
Anthropogenic Hazards are due to human behaviour and activity. The social, natural and built environment are not only at risk of geophysical hazards but also from technological hazards including industrial explosions, the release of chemical hazards and major accident hazards (MAHs). Sociological hazards include crime, terrorist threats and war.
Climate-Resilient & Adaptive Infrastructure: Design provides guidance for and contributes to the developing or enhancing of methods for infrastructure analysis and design in a world in which risk profiles are changing and can be projected with varying degrees of uncertainty requiring a new design philosophy to meet this challenge.: Adaptive Design, provides guidance for and contributes to the developing or enhancing of methods for infrastructure analysis and design in a world in which risk profiles are changing and can be projected with varying degrees of uncertainty requiring a new design philosophy to meet this challenge.
Risk Analysis, Assessment & Management was defined as a continuous management process with the objective of revealing, analysing, and assessing potential hazardous events in a system, and identifying and initiating efficient risk control measures to eliminate or reduce possible harm to people, the environment, or other assets. Risk management is an integrated part of all good management and has, in our situation, three main elements:
The objectives of risk analysis are to:
- Identify hazards and threats related to the case object.
- Identify potential hazardous happening that may occur related to the study object.
- Find the causes of each hazardous event.
- Identify barriers and safeguards that can prevent or reduce the probability of hazardous events or the consequences of these events, and assess the reliability of these barriers.
- Identify accident...
A hazard and operability study (HAZOP) is a structured and systematic examination of a complex planned or existing process or operation in order to identify and evaluate problems that may represent risks to personnel or equipment.
Early warning is a critical element of disaster risk reduction. It can prevent loss of life and reduce the economic and material influence of hazardous events including disasters. To be effective, early warning systems need to actively include the people and communities at risk from a range of hazards, facilitate public education and awareness of risks, disseminate messages & warnings efficiently and ensure that there is a constant state of preparedness and that early action is enabled. A vulnerability assessment is an act of identifying, quantifying, and prioritizing the vulnerabilities in a system. Examples of vulnerability assessments are performed include but are not limited to, information technology systems, energy supply systems, water supply systems, transportation systems, and communication systems. Those assessments may be conducted on behalf of a range of different organizations, from small businesses up to large regional infrastructures. Vulnerability from the interpretation of disaster management means assessing the threats from potential hazards to the population and to infrastructure. It may be managed in the political, social, economic or environmental fields. Vulnerability assessment has many things in quotidian with risk assessment.
Assessments are typically executed according to the following steps:
- Cataloguing assets and ability in a system.
- Assigning quantifiable value and importance significance to those resources
- Identifying the vulnerabilities or potential warning to each resource
- Mitigating or rejecting the most serious vulnerabilities for the most valuable resources
Evacuation is the immediate egress or escape of people away from an area that contains an imminent danger, an on-going threat or a hazard to lives or property. Simulation is an emulation of the operation of a real-world process or system. The act of simulating something first requires that a model is developed; this model represents the key characteristics, behaviours and functions of the selected physical or abstract system or process. The model represents the system itself, whereas the simulation represents the operation of the system over time. Design risk assessment is the act of determining potential risk in a design process, either in a concept design or a detailed design. It provides a broader evaluation of your design beyond just CTQs and will enable you to eliminate possible failures and reduce the impact of potential failures. This ensures a rigorous, systematic examination in the reliability of the design and allows you to capture system-level risk.
The system of institutions, mechanisms, policy and legal frameworks and other arrangements to guide, coordinate and oversee disaster risk reduction and related areas of policy.
Annotation: Good governance needs to be transparent, inclusive, collective and efficient to reduce existing disaster risks and avoid creating new ones.