Neurosurgery is the discipline of medicine with surgical treatment, diagnosis, evolution and rehabilitation of pathological process that modify the function of brain, nervous system, spinal cord. vascular neurosurgery and Endovascular neurosurgery are the major division of neurosurgery. Surgeon diagnoses patients suffering from back and neck pain as well as a host of other illnesses ranging from trigeminal neuralgia to head injury and Parkinson's disease.
Robotic surgery is a type of minimally invasive surgery. that operated on patients through large incisions, surgeons use miniaturized surgical instruments that fit through a series of quarter-inch incisions. The da Vinci Si—the world’s most advanced surgical robot—these miniaturized instruments are mounted on three separate robotic arms, allowing the surgeon maximum range of motion and precision. Its fourth arm contains a magnified high-definition 3-D camera that guides the surgeon during the procedure. Surgeons are able to perform a growing number of complex urological, cardiothoracic, gynaecological and general surgical procedures. Since these procedures can now be performed through very small incisions, so patients experience a number of benefits like less trauma on the body minimal scarring, and faster recovery time compared to open surgery.
In trauma care patients are injured in a serious accident, physical and sexual assault and a natural disaster. A special area of persons with critical or multiple injuries to the musculoskeletal system. People with conditions such as adult respiratory distress syndrome, necrotizing fasciitis, sepsis, and multiple organ failures were treated in trauma critical care.
The speciality of plastic surgery deals with the renovation or modification of the humane body. Reconstructive plastic surgery will be performed to correct the congenital construction or facial bone break and functional impairments because of injuries. The plastic surgeon must also possess excellent skill in the performance of excisional surgery and the other fundamental areas of expertise are the surgical pathology, surgical oncology, surgical design, surgical diagnosis, surgical and artistic anatomy, surgical physiology, pharmacology, bacteriology, biomechanics, embryology, and surgical instrumentation. Craniofacial surgery is separated into adult craniofacial surgery and paediatric surgery.
Orthopaedic Surgery is specifically caring of the musculoskeletal system including bones, mussels, associated nerves, arteries and the overlying skin. Orthopaedics may also involve the treatment of second muscular problems of central or peripheral nervous system. Surgeons mainly take care of joints and their associated soft tissues, including ligaments. Arthroplasty, corrective surgery, joint arthroscopy, fracture repair are the main procedure used by orthopaedic surgeons.
Ophthalmological Surgery is known as care of the vision or surgical procedure of the eyes. The most common purpose of ophthalmologic surgery is to repair eye muscles and improve vision. Ophthalmologists provide glasses and contact lenses, treat medical disorders of the eye, and perform surgical procedures for treatment. Laser eye surgery is the process accomplished by the spending of the laser on the surface of the eye. Anterior vasectomy is the removal of the front part of the eye to the reduction of intraocular pressure Trabeculectomy surgery uses a laser to open the iris to increase the outflow of aqueous humour and to intraocular pressure in the treatment of glaucoma. Laser photocoagulation is used to treat wet age-related macular degeneration.
Transplant surgery is the surgical exchange of organ, body tissue, or blood products from a donor and surgically placing or infusing them into a recipient. Heart, kidneys, liver, digestive tract, lungs, pancreas and thymus Organs that could be transplanted. The cornea and musculoskeletal grafts are the most commonly transplanted tissues. Grafts transplanted between two genetically different individuals of the same species most human tissue and organ transplants are allografts. Kidney transplantation is generally accepted as the best treatment both for the quality of life and cost-effectiveness. Frozen and cryopreserved cells and human tissues can be protected and saved up to five years.
Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery is the speciality concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of face, jaws, neck, the hard and soft tissues of the facial, congenital facial disproportion, facial trauma, oral cancer, salivary gland disease, temporomandibular joint disorders, and various benign pathologies. Oral and Maxillofacial Surgical operations are carried out on an outpatient basis under conscious sedation like pre-implant surgery placement of dental or facial implants, intra-oral and facial soft tissue procedures and some major operation are carried out on an inpatient like trauma, facial deformity or cancer, salivary gland disease.
Urologic surgery focuses on the urinary tract organs of males and females, and the male reproductive system. Urologic surgery is the integration of surgical activities for the pelvis-the colon, urogenital, and gynaecological organs. Small cameras and machines are inserted into the urinary tract in the process of endourology. Overactive bladder, pelvic organ prolapses, and urinary incontinence are the division of feminine urology. Paediatric urology is some disease like cryptorchidism, genitourinary tract, enuresis, immature genitalia, and vesicoureteral reflux which affected children.
Anaesthesiologists play a vital role in assessing a patient’s medical readiness for surgery. Preoperative, intraoperative, postoperative are the three stages of perioperative care. Preoperative care will provide before, throughout and after the operation. During the Anaesthesia surgical procedure medications are given so patients are unconscious and unable to feel any pain. In case of emergency optional surgeries, perioperative care can be going a long period.